Red Cliff (2009): Part 02


Introduction

Red Cliff or Chibi (Chinese: 赤壁) is a 2008–2009 Chinese epic war film, based on the Battle of Red Cliffs (208–209 AD) and the events at the end of the Han dynasty and immediately prior to the Three Kingdoms period in Imperial China.

The film was directed by John Woo, and stars Tony Leung, Takeshi Kaneshiro, Zhang Fengyi, Chang Chen, Zhao Wei, Hu Jun, and Lin Chi-ling.

Background

In China and much of Asia, Red Cliff was released in two parts, totalling over four hours in length (288 minutes). The first part (146 minutes) premiered in Beijing on 02 July 2008 and the second (142 minutes) was released in China on 07 January 2009. Outside Asia, a cut-down single 148 minute version was released in 2009. However, the full-length two-part version was released on DVD and Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on 05 October 2009, and in the United States and Canada on 23 March 2010.

The first part of the film grossed over US$127 million internationally and broke the Asian box office record previously held by Titanic in mainland China.

Director John Woo said in an interview with David Stratton that the film is only 50% factual. Woo decided to alter the story using modern feelings and his own feelings for a more worldly acceptance. According to Woo, historical accuracy was less important than how the audience felt about the battle.

Outline (Part 02)

Part 01 here.

Sun Shangxiang has infiltrated Cao Cao’s camp and is secretly noting its details and sending them via a pigeon to Zhuge Liang. Meanwhile, Cao Cao’s army is seized with a plague of typhoid fever that kills a number of his troops. Cao Cao orders the corpses to be sent on floating rafts to the allies’ camp, in the hope of spreading the plague to his enemies. The allied army’s morale is affected when some unsuspecting soldiers let the plague in. Eventually, a disheartened Liu Bei leaves with his forces while Zhuge Liang stays behind to assist Sun Quan. Cao Cao is overjoyed when he hears that the alliance has collapsed. At the same time, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun propose a new tactic of interlocking the battleships with iron beams to minimise rocking when sailing on the river and reduce the chances of the troops falling seasick.

Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang make plans to eliminate Cai Mao and Zhang Yun and produce 100,000 arrows respectively. They agreed that whoever fails to complete his mission shall be executed under military law. Zhuge Liang’s strategy of letting the enemy shoot 20 boats covered in straw brings in over 100,000 arrows from the enemy and makes Cao Cao doubt the loyalty of Cai Mao and Zhang Yun. On the other hand, Cao Cao sends Jiang Gan to persuade Zhou Yu to surrender, but Zhou tricks Jiang Gan into believing that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are planning to assassinate Cao Cao. Both Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu’s respective plans complement each other when Cao Cao is convinced, despite having earlier doubts about Jiang Gan’s report, that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun were indeed planning to assassinate him by deliberately “donating” arrows to the enemy. Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are executed only for Cao Cao to realize his folly afterwards.

Sun Shangxiang returns to base from Cao Cao’s camp with a map of the enemy formation. Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang decide to attack Cao Cao’s navy with fire after predicting that a special climatic condition will soon cause the winds to blow from the southeast – a direction to their advantage. Before the battle, Sun Quan’s forces feast on rice dumplings to celebrate the Winter Solstice. Meanwhile, Zhou Yu’s wife, Xiaoqiao, after over hearing the battle plan heads towards Cao Cao’s camp alone secretly in the hope of persuading Cao to give up his ambitious plans. She fails to convince Cao Cao and decides to distract him with an elaborate tea ceremony to buy time for her side.

The battle begins when the southeast wind starts blowing in the middle of the night. Sun Quan’s forces launch their attack on Cao Cao’s navy by ramming smaller boats that are set aflame into Cao’s larger battleships. On the other hand, Liu Bei’s forces, whose departure from the alliance was a ruse, start attacking Cao Cao’s forts on land. By dawn, Cao Cao’s entire navy has been destroyed. The allies launch another offensive on Cao Cao’s ground army in his forts and succeed in breaking through using testudo formation despite suffering heavy casualties. Although Cao Cao is besieged in his main camp, he manages to hold Zhou Yu at sword point after ambushing him with the help of Cao Hong. Xiahou Jun also shows up with Xiaoqiao as a hostage and threatens to kill her if the allies do not surrender. Just then, Zhao Yun manages to reverse the situation by rescuing Xiaoqiao with a surprise attack, while Sun Quan fires an arrow that grazes the top of Cao Cao’s head and cuts his scalp loose. Cao Cao is now at the mercy of the allies, but they spare his life and leave. In the final scene, Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang have a final conversation before Zhuge walks away into the far distance with the newborn foal Mengmeng.

Abridged Version

For the non-Asian releases, the film was shortened from 288 minutes to 148 minutes and was released in some countries under the title Battle of Red Cliff. An opening narration in American English provides the historical background, whereas in the Asian release, a more brief description of the context of the political situation appears in scrolling form ten minutes into the film. Notable cuts include the background and motivations behind Zhuge Liang’s plan to obtain 100,000 arrows, including the threat to his life, and the early parts of Sun Shangxiang’s infiltration, where she befriended a northern soldier Sun Shucai (though the scene where she mourns Sun’s death was not cut). The tiger hunting scene was also cut from the non-Asian releases.

The original two-part 288 minute English version was released as a two-disc set on DVD and Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on 05 October 2009, and in the United States and Canada on 23 March 2010.

Cast

  • Tony Leung as Zhou Yu.
  • Takeshi Kaneshiro as Zhuge Liang.
  • Zhang Fengyi as Cao Cao.
  • Chang Chen as Sun Quan.
  • Zhao Wei as Sun Shangxiang.
  • Hu Jun as Zhao Yun.
  • You Yong as Liu Bei.
  • Lin Chi-ling as Xiao Qiao.
  • Shidō Nakamura as Gan Ning.
  • Hou Yong as Lu Su.
  • Tong Dawei as Sun Shucai.
  • Batdorj-in Baasanjab as Guan Yu.
  • Zang Jinsheng as Zhang Fei.
  • Song Jia as Lady Li.
  • Zhang Shan as Huang Gai.
  • Wang Hui as Cao Hong.
  • Xie Gang as Hua Tuo.
  • Shi Xiaohong as Jiang Gan.
  • Xu Fengnian as Zhang Liao.
  • Guo Chao as Yue Jin.
  • Hu Xiaoguang as Xiahou Jun.
  • Cui Yugui as Xu Chu.
  • Jiang Tong as Li Tong.
  • Ma Jing as Wei Ben.
  • Yizhen as Cai Mao.
  • Jia Hongwei as Zhang Yun.
  • Zhao Chengshun as Xun You.
  • Wang Zaolai as Cheng Yu.
  • Wang Ning as Emperor Xian of Han.
  • Wang Qingxiang as Kong Rong.
  • Li Hong as Lady Gan.
  • He Yin as Lady Mi.
  • Wang Yuzhang as Cheng Pu.
  • Menghe Wuliji as Guan Ping.
  • Sun Xinyu as Cowherd boy.
  • Ma Jingwu as Old fisherman.
  • Ye Hua as Tiantian.
  • Chen Changhai as Qin Song.
  • Zhang Yi as Zhang Zhao.
  • Wu Qi as Gu Yong.
  • He Feng as Man Tun.
  • Li Hongchen as Sick soldier.

Production

Casting

Ken Watanabe was originally selected for the role of Cao Cao. According to a report, some Chinese fans voiced objections over the choice as they felt that it was inappropriate for a Japanese actor to portray an important Chinese historical figure. The report claimed that the protests influenced the decision of director John Woo, who eventually chose Zhang Fengyi for the role.

Chow Yun-fat was originally selected for the role of Zhou Yu, and had even earlier been considered for the role of Liu Bei. However, he pulled out on 13 April 2007, just as shooting began. Chow explained that he received a revised script a week earlier and was not given sufficient time to prepare, but producer Terence Chang disputed this, saying that he could not work with Chow because the film’s Hollywood insurer opposed 73 clauses in Chow’s contract. After just 2 days, Chow was replaced by Tony Leung, who had previously turned down the role of Zhuge Liang. Although he was exhausted after filming Lust, Caution; Leung offered to help because of his 20-year friendship with Woo.

Filming

Principal photography commenced in mid-April 2007. Shooting was held at a film studio in Beijing, as well as in Hebei province, where naval warfare was staged at two working reservoirs.

On 09 June 2008, a stuntman was killed in a freak fire accident that also left six others injured.

The digital visual effects in Red Cliff II were produced by Modus FX, The Orphanage, Frantic Films, Red FX and Prime Focus.

Woo said that this film differed from other films based on The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, including story-based dramas and Three Kingdoms: Resurrection of the Dragon, because it “brings out more humane stories tangled with the characters’ psychology and life events.”

Release

Production is helmed by Lion Rock Entertainment and China Film Group Corporation. Distributors were fast to clinch the deal before shooting even began. Distributors include Chengtian Entertainment (China), CMC Entertainment / 20th Century Fox Taiwan Branch (Taiwan), Mei Ah Entertainment (Hong Kong), Avex Group/Toho-Towa Co. (Japan), Showbox (South Korea), the Los Angeles-based Summit Entertainment (international), and Magnolia Pictures (United States).

Western critics also reacted positively to the film when the two parts were released as one film (148 minute version) in June 2009.

Trivia

  • The film makers received help from the Chinese Army who lent them approximately 1500 soldiers to play extras and build roads.
  • With an estimated budget of US$80 million, it was the most expensive Asian-financed film to date.
  • During post-production, a 23-year-old stuntman was killed when fire broke out after a small boat rammed into a larger warship, while filming miniatures.
  • Shooting was held at a film studio in Beijing, as well as in Hebei province, where naval warfare was staged at two working reservoirs.
  • Dynasty Warriors, a video game is based on characters from this movie.

Production & Filming Details

  • Director(s):
    • John Woo.
  • Producer(s):
    • Terence Chang … producer.
    • Zilong Guo … co-producer (as Guo Zilong).
    • Sanping Han … producer (as Han Sanping).
    • Xiaoei Han … co-executive producer (as Han Xiaoei).
    • Bing He … co-producer (as He Bing).
    • Xiaofeng Hu … executive producer / line producer (as Hu Xiaofeng).
    • Chin-Wen Huang … co-producer (as Chin-Wen Huang).
    • Tao Jiang … chief producer.
    • Wu Kebo … co-producer (as Wu Kebo).
    • Woo-taek Kim … co-producer (as WooTaek Kim).
    • Sirena Liu … co-producer (as Liu Yan).
    • Hongshi Lu … co-executive producer (as Lu Hongshi).
    • Max Matsuura … co-producer (as Masato Matsuura).
    • Rick Nathanson … line producer.
    • Mingyu Peng … administrative producer (as Peng Mingyu).
    • Zhonglun Ren … co-producer (as Ren Zhonglun).
    • Dong-ming Shi … associate producer (as Shi Dongming).
    • Tsai-Yang Tang … administrative producer (as David Tang).
    • Zhan Teng … co-producer (as Teng Zhan).
    • Lori Tilkin … associate producer.
    • Jianqiu Wang … co-producer (as Wang Jianqiu).
    • Wei Wang … administrative producer.
    • Todd Weinger … associate producer.
    • Anne Woo … administrative producer.
    • John Woo … chief producer / producer.
    • Jianshai Xu … associate producer (as Xu Jianshai).
    • Pengle Xu … co-executive producer (as Xu Pengle).
    • Xiaoming Yan … co-producer (as Yan Xiaoming).
    • Shoucheng Yang … co-producer (as Yang Shoucheng).
    • Ju-Feng Yeh … administrative producer (as Yeh Ju Feng).
    • Cheri Yeung … administrative producer.
    • Dong Yu … associate producer (as Yu Dong) / co-producer (as Yu Dong).
    • Daxing Zhang … administrative producer.
    • Qiang Zhang … co-producer (as Zhang Qiang).
  • Writer(s):
    • John Woo … (screenplay).
    • Khan Chan … (screenplay) (as Chan Khan).
    • Cheng Kuo … (screenplay) (as Kuo Cheng).
    • Heyu Sheng … (screenplay) (as Sheng Heyu).
    • Guanzhong Luo … (novel).
  • Music:
    • Tarô Iwashiro.
  • Cinematography:
    • Yue Lü … director of photography (as Lu Yue).
    • Li Zhang … director of photography (as Zhang Li).
  • Editor(s):
    • Robert A. Ferretti.
    • Angie Lam.
    • Hongyu Yang … (as Yang Hong Yu).
  • Production:
    • Beijing Film Studio (presented by).
    • China Film Group Corporation (CFGC) (presented by).
    • Lion Rock Productions (presented by).
    • Shanghai Film Group (co-presented by).
    • China Movie Channel (co-presented by).
    • Beijing Poly-bona Film Publishing Company (co-presented by).
    • Beijing Forbidden City Film (co-presented by).
    • Chengdu Media Group (co-presented by).
    • Chengtian Entertainment (co-presented by).
    • Zoki Century International Culture Media Beijing Co. (co-presented by).
    • Beijing Guang Dian Film & Television Media Co. (co-presented by).
    • Beijing Jinyinma Movie & TV Culture Co. (co-presented by).
    • Emperor Multimedia Group (EMG) (co-presented by).
    • Avex Entertainment (co-presented by).
    • CMC Entertainment (co-presented by).
    • Showbox Entertainment (co-presented by).
  • Distributor(s):
    • China Film Group Corporation (CFGC) (2008) (China) (theatrical).
    • Batrax Entertainment (2008) (Non-US) (all media) (multi-territory).
    • Golden Village Pictures (2008) (Singapore) (theatrical).
    • Icon Film Distribution (2009) (Australia) (theatrical).
    • Independent Films (2009) (Netherlands) (theatrical).
    • Magnet Releasing (2009) (USA) (theatrical) (subtitled).
    • Magnolia Pictures (2009) (USA) (theatrical).
    • Mongkol Major (2008) (Thailand) (theatrical).
    • Showbox/Mediaplex (2008) (South Korea) (theatrical).
    • Toho-Towa (2008) (Japan) (theatrical).
    • Twentieth Century Fox (2008) (Taiwan) (theatrical).
    • Viva International Pictures (2009) (Philippines) (theatrical).
    • Ammo Content (2020) (Brazil) (video).
    • Ammo Content (2020) (Mexico) (video).
    • Ascot Elite Entertainment Group (2009) (Switzerland) (all media).
    • Bontonfilm (2008) (Czechia) (all media).
    • CMC Entertainment (2008) (Taiwan) (all media).
    • Channel 4 Television Corporation (2012) (UK) (TV).
    • Constantin Film (2008) (Germany) (all media).
    • David Distribucion (2009) (Mexico) (all media).
    • Eagle Pictures (2008) (Italy) (all media).
    • Emerald (2010) (Argentina) (DVD).
    • Entertainment One (2009) (Canada) (all media).
    • Europa Filmes (2010) (Brazil) (DVD).
    • Film1 (2010) (Netherlands) (TV) (limited).
    • Iris (2016) (Italy) (TV).
    • Jaguar Film International Distribution (2008) (all media) (Middle East).
    • Ledafilms (2009) (Mexico) (all media).
    • Magnolia Home Entertainment (2010) (USA) (DVD).
    • Magnolia Home Entertainment (2010) (USA) (Blu-ray) (DVD).
    • Mediacorp Raintree Pictures (2008) (Singapore) (all media).
    • Mei Ah Entertainment (2008) (Hong Kong) (all media).
    • Metropolitan Filmexport (2008) (France) (all media).
    • Nordisk Film (2009) (Finland) (DVD).
    • Nordisk Film (2009) (all media) (Scandinavia).
    • Odeon (2008) (Greece) (all media).
    • PT Amero Mitra Film (2008) (Indonesia) (all media).
    • Sahamongkol Film International (2008) (Thailand) (all media).
    • Scorpio East (2008) (Singapore) (all media).
    • Showbox Entertainment (2008) (South Korea) (all media).
    • TriPictures (2010) (Spain) (all media).
    • Warner Home Video (2010) (Netherlands) (DVD).
    • Warner Home Video (2010) (Netherlands) (Blu-ray) (DVD).
  • Release Date:
    • Part 01: 10 July 2008.
    • Part 02: 07 January 2009.
  • Rating: 15.
  • Running Time:
    • Part 01: 146 minutes.
    • Part 02: 142 minutes.
    • Total running time: 288 minutes.
    • Abridged version: 148 minutes.
  • Country: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and US.
  • Language: Mandarin and English (subtitles).

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